The first was cost and the second was consistency.
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Natural root products such as madder extract varied from batch to batch according to the growing and storage conditions. Indeed, madder powder was so easily damaged by exposure to light and atmosphere that even the transportation was expensive. German chemists, Carl Graebe and Carl Liebermann were the first to synthesize artificial alizarin from coal tar in , which was available commercially in Britain from and soon adopted in the Turkey red industry.
German chemical companies led the way in artificial alizarin production and sales, but by the early s the British Turkey red industry was fighting back with endeavours to restrict the use of this foreign commodity through the creation of the British Alizarine Company Ltd. The Scots continued with their endeavours to further improve natural Turkey red and alizarin dyeing, but the European dyestuffs companies were adept at developing not only their cheap products with guaranteed consistent results, but they also provided technical advice and services for their clients, which meant that dyeing and printing businesses were able to cut the costs of specialist staff at their works.
The penetration of German dyes into the Indian market came at a time when imperial policies of industrial restriction were increasingly seen as politically unacceptable and the impact on Scottish Turkey red was inevitable.
Biodegradation of Synthetic Dyes—A Review
The fight for market position in India resulted in the founding of the United Turkey Red Company Ltd in , but by this stage all of the Vale of Leven companies were major users of artificial dyes. Vani Hari, the author of the Change. More cheese please! About Us. Brand Publishing. Times News Platforms. Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close extra sharing options. Synthetic dyes are used everywhere in everything from clothes to paper, from food to wood.
Important Early Synthetic Dyes: Chemistry, Constitution, Date, Properties
Synthetic dyes today has evolved into a multi billion dollar industry. They are widely used for dyeing and printing in a broad range of industries. Cheaper to produce, brighter, more color-fast, and easy to apply to fabric, these synthetic dyes changed the playing field. Scientists raced to formulate gorgeous new colors and before long, dyed fabric was available to all, and natural dyes had become obsolete for most applications. The synthetic dyes, can be named according to the chemical structure of their particular chromophoric group.
For example, diphenylmethane derivatives, triphenylmethane compounds oxazine compounds, xanthene compounds, Azo dyes are one of the most popular varieties of synthetic dyes. Most of the synthetic dyes with a few exception are aromatic organic compounds which can be divided into groups like non-ionic oil soluble , cationic, and anionic.
A typical example of Cationic dye is Methyl violet, while Azo dyes are anionic dyes.
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